This is part of the KAIST Terman Report.

Survey Report
on the Establishment of the
Korea Advanced Institute of Science

Donald L. Benedict
KunMo Chung
Franklin A. Long
Thomas L. Martin
Frederick E. Terman, Chairman

Prepared for
US Agency for International Development
December 1970

Chapter 3

Organization, Policies and Operations

The Korean Advanced Institute for Science involves a concept that has awakened the imagination of sponsors and observers alike. It will challenge and reward all those who play an active part in its creation. But the establishment of the proposed institution will not be easy, and the whole program involves a total effort that is easily underestimated.

Some recommendations of a general nature are presented here in connection with the master plan for the establishment of KAIS. These recommendations take into account both the Korean objectives and much experience on similar schools in the developed nations. Further elatoration of these particular poinst, and additional discussion on other points, will be presented in a Supplement to this report that is being prepared.

Board of Trustees

The basic law for KAIS (see Appendix A) specifies that the fundamental responsibility shall be in the hands of a Board of Trustees, and this seems entirely appropriate to the Survey Team. The law provides that there shall be up to 15 trustees, of whom the President of KAIS, the President of KIST, the Vice Ministers of the Economic Planning Board, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Science and Technology, and one or two foreign representatives are to be ex-officio members, while the remaining eight or nine members are to be chosen from academic and industrial circles in Korea. The foreign representatives are to be chosen in case there is a substantial aid commitment from abroad. One of them might be the suggested U.S. Coordinator for KAIS (see Chapter 5), and the other might represent a foreign or international agency supporting KAIS. The remaining Board members are to be chosen by the Board itself, except the initial Board members who will be appointed by the government. The law also provides that the Auditor may attend Board meetings and has the right to speak (but not to vote).

Although the Board is self-perpetuating, the law also specifies that any appointment of trustees as well as other key officers of KAIS be approved by both the Minister of Science and Technology and the Minister of Education. This last provision introduces possibilities of delay and conflict in connection with key appointments, and might dilute the independence and autonomy of KAIS. Both Ministries are represented by ex-officio trustees, and since the basic plan contemplates an independent and autonomous institution governed by the Board of Trustees, the requirement of approval from two Ministries (Article 6(2)) is possibly unnecessary, and could even be regarded as contradictory to the spirit of the law. The Survey Team recommends strongly that this article be either modified or deleted. One possible modification is that these appointments require only concurrence of the government rather than approval of the ministries. Thus the Board of Trustees might sometimes be required to reconsider a nomination, but no ministry would be allowed to exercise veto power. The other possible modification, which is acceptable but is perhaps less desirable, is that both ministries be consulted, but that formal approval be required from only one minisry, e.g., the Ministry of Science and Technology.

The Board is a working body, although honor would be associated with being a trustee. Trustees are responsible for determining the major policies of KAIS, including particularly financial policies. Trustees must understand the objectives of KAIS and be sympathetic toward them. As each trustee gains familiarity with KAIS he can fill his responsibilities more effectively. Thus it will be desirable to appoint trustees for a succession of terms rather than for a single term, which is three years according to the law. At the same, time, there should be a limit such as four, on the number of successive appointments and also a maximum age, as perhaps 70 years, in order to assure an active Board.

Fig. 3-1: Possible Organization Chart for KAIS.

This chart is for KAIS in full operation; positions will be filled progressively. Dotted boxes [e.g.. "Industrial Advisors"] denote external advisoryvisiting groups.

Advisory Councils

The Survey Team recommends that the KAIS Board of Trustees should appoint two Councils of advisors to assist it and the President of KAIS. One Council should be chosen from academic people, both in Korea and abroad. They will furnish expert knowledge on academic matters and help the Board in making decisions on academic procedures. The other Council would be composed of industrial leaders who would help the Board in financial matters, and in defining the needs of industry for trained personnel.


The president is designated by the law as the chief executive officer of KAIS. The Board of Trustees will appoint the president, and the president answers to and serves the Board at its pleasure. The presidency will be a most demanding position rather than an honorary title, since the president is responsible for administering both the Institute's academic and financial matters, and also its relations with outside groups and particularly industry (See Chapter 4). The president should have a thorough knowledge of academic matters, and must also be a capable administrator. An ideal president would be a Korean scientist or engineer who also understand modern professional graduate education, and has definite ideas on how to accomplish the objectives of KAIS in Korean circumstances.

KAIS is a completely new and unique institution in Korea. Its president should have a dedication to KAIS and should be preparted to work vigorously to carry out its objectives. Since KAIS is in some ways a complex institution, it is important that the president be a man who knows how to delegate part of his responsibilities to form a leadership team. KAIS cannot afford an unimaginative or unbalanced and weak administration in its formative years.

To assist the Board and the president, KAIS will also need other academic, development and business officers. A possible organization chart is given in Fig. 3-1.


Although the Board of Trustees and the administration bear the principal responsibility, the ultimate success of KAIS is dependent on its faculty.

The faculty would be composed of regular full-time faculty (professors, associate professors, assistant professors, instructors), visiting faculty, part-time faculty, and part-time lecturers. The Survey Team strongly recommends that only those appointed as full-time full professors and associate professors have tenure.

The details of the tenure policy should be worked out with great care in a way that insures the faculty's continuing excellence, and that avoids stagnation resulting from the lack of enough faculty turnover. It is recommended that no more than 40-50% of the full-time faculty (excluding visiting and adjunct faculty and lecturers) have tenure at any one time. The remaining full time regular faculty members would be young assistant professors and instructors, who would serve a maximum of six to eight years at KAIS and would then be either promoted to a tenure position or rotated out. According to this system, a number of young people with valuable training and experience at KAIS would be leaving KAIS each year; they would normally become teachers at other Korean univerisities, or would take positions in industry or government.

It is of great importance that the senior faculty members of KAIS be scholars with experience and wide reputation. KAIS must adopt a true merit system for evaluating its faculty members, and set a high standard. For example, when making decisions relative to the selection, advancement and salary increases of faculty members, KAIS should avoid the traditional Korean senoirity system which is based solely on the year of graduation, and on the number of years of service. Again, in filling tenure positions, KAIS should seek the best available candidate of Korean origin for each opening. In other words, when a tenure position becomes vacant, it would be thrown open to a general competition that includes faculty members at other institutions and also Korean nationals abroad, rather than automatically being filled by the best assistant professor already at KAIS. In this connection, the Survey Team suggests the use of ad hoc faculty evaluation committees composed of tenure professors, senior engineers or scientists from Korean industry and Korean universities, supplemented by distinguished foreign scholars.

Visiting professorships are especially suitable for foreign scholars invited to serve at KAIS for limited period, or for Korean scholars abroad who are available to serve KAIS on a temporary basis.

Adjunct professorships are for academically qualified scientists or engineers who would be available to teach and supervise research work at KAIS on a part-time basis. KAIS will be able to satisfy some necessary teaching needs in this way, and many scientists and engineers would regard such an opportunity as a priviledge. Adjunct professorships can be especially useful devices for promoting interactions with other institutions located in the Science Park.

Lectureships are suitable for industrial people who would give specialized lectures in connection with practical applications of knowledge, and would provide liaison getween KAIS and industry.

One of the critical problems in recruiting competent professors and enabling them to function effectively in Korea is concerned with living and working conditions. In the case of the Korean Instititute of Science and Technology (KIST), the principal members of the technical staff receive adequate salaries, comfortable housing in apartments located in the Science Park, and other significant fringe benefits. It is recognized that KIST's schedule on salaries and other benefits is essential for the successful operation of that institute. KAIS requires similar provisions for its professors. Every effort should be made to set up a liberal salary scale, adequate hosuing, provisions for local transportation, insurance for medical and life risks, and good educational facilities for dependents. There should not be unreasonable disparities in salary between resident full-time faculty members and visiting or adjunct professors, including foreign visiting professors. In return, KAIS faculty members should not be allowed to engage in the practice of moonlighting. A more detailed discussion of these matters, including policies relative to non-KAIS activities of the staff, is given in the Supplement to this report.

Initial Fields of Instruction

After extensive interviews with government officials, university people, business leaders and foreign representatives stationed in Korea (see Appendix B), and after a study of the Korean economic and industrial situation, the Survey Team recommends that in the first three or four years KAIS concentrate its teaching efforts in a maximum of six high-priority fields, as follows:

1. Mechanical Engineering

This would cover machine design, dynamics and vibration, fabrication, materials (metals and alloys), materials processing, basic thermodynamics (including heat transfer).

2. Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

Includes chemical processes and synthesis, ceramics, catalyzed reactions, polymer technology, and basic fluid mechanics.

3. Electronic Sciences

Includes active and passive devices, properties of electronic materials, circuit networks and their applications, control systems.

4. Communication and System Engineering

Includes organization, processing and distribution of information, and associated equipment.

5. Industrial Engineering and Management

Deals with problems of efficient design and control of production processes and or organizations, likewise includes development economics (including econometrics), economic planning, also quality control.

6. Basic Sciences and Applied Mathematics (Including Computer Programming)

A small, high-quality interdisciplinary group that accepts a teaching role that is primarily service to the engineering programs, and also participates in the supervision of theses and dissertations in the degree-granting areas.

Of these six fields, the first five should be the primary fields for the initial MS degree programs.

The above recommendations are tentative, and are also subject to modifications and expansion with time in response to the evolving needs of Korea.

The recommended list of five degree-granting departments plus a basic science department is considerably shorter than that proposed in the preliminary Korean plan for KAIS, which contemplated 5 basic science departments, 5 engineering departments, and 4 applied science departments. Such a large number of programs is incompatible with an entering class of 100+ students and 50 faculty members.

It is very important that each field of study within a department have enough faculty members so that each major aspect of the field can be covered by at least one competent teacher. There should also be a sufficient number of students in each MS degree program to permit students to learn by interaction and discussion among each other, and to insure that classroom activities involve enough students to make efficient use of the faculty effort. As a rough guide, a department with responsibility for a given MS degree program might involve 5 to 10 full-time-equivelent faculty members and be responsible for a total of 40 to 100 graduate students (including MS, Engineer, and ScD candidates), or 15 to 30 new MS candidates each year. The number of students and staff must fit the "critical mass" concept, which recognizes the need for a minimum number of people if a group is to be effective.

The Survey Team strongly recommends that in its first few years KAIS offer instruction in only a limited number of high-priority fields, and that all available resources be devoted to achieving a truly outstanding program in each of these fields.The alternative of spreading the student enrollment and the faculty thinly among a large number of fields can only result in lowering the quality of the training. Such dispersal of resources is a major problem in graduate education in science and engineering in Korea today, and this weakness should not be transplanted to KAIS. This implies that in adding new fields of instruction to KAIS's MS program, both faculty and student enrollment must be increased.

Curricula Considerations

Careful attention should be given to planning the curricula to insure that the objectives of KAIS are carried out. This is particularly important in the MS program.

All MS students, irrespective of specialty, should normally be expected to enroll in certain "core" courses. Topics such as the following are possibilities for inclusion in this core:

Statistics (including probability)
Principles of Quality Control
Computer Programming (introductory course)
Materials (survey course)
Engineering Economy (i.e. factors entering ito the cost of indusrial operation)
Industrial Organization and Management (survey course)
Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations
Economic Development in Korea
Introduction to Instruments
Combination lecture and laboratory course that surveys the field of instrumentation, and gives every KAIS student "hands-on" experience with a wide variety of modern measuring instruments.

It is suggested that between one-fifth and one-third of the two-year program of study for the MS degreee be devoted to subjects in the common core. One of the first duties of the KAIS administration and faculty would be to work out the details of this part of the instruction program.

In addition to the common core, each individual MS curriculum should have a recomended program, consisting of certain courses that would normally be required of all students majoring in that particular specialty, plus additional courses that were optional, plus some completely free electives. Students should be permitted upon petition to modify a standard curriculum, provided the new program fitted coherent plan and was not easier than the standard program.

Instruction Policies

In training students, KAIS should encourage problem-solving power and ability to apply knowledge. Comprehension and reasoning are to be emphasized rather than memorization of knowledge. Independent study should play a significant role. First-hand laboratory experience should be extensive. Research projects could typically include practical considerations or applications. Many examinations should be open-book type to test the ability to make use of the knowledge in books and the ability to solve problems. And, very importantly, students should make regular use of libraries and computers, and should go on field visits to industrial plants. KAIS should give attention to reducing the traditional passivity of the Korean student, and strengthen his ability in verbal and written communication. Seminars so conducted as to require student participation are especially helpful in the connection. These matters are discussed further in the Supplement to this report.

The graduate of KAIS can be expected to have a significant leadership role in Korean industry. Therefore, KAIS should provide training designed to enhance leadership qualities. Continuous exposure to the overall Korean economic situation might be appropriate. Training in making decisions should be included. Through formal and informal contacts with faculty members, industrialists and senior students, KAIS students must acquire a sense of responsibility to Korea.

Faculty Organization

The faculty of KAIS would be headed by a vice president for academic affairs serving under the president (see Fig. 3-1). The faculty would be grouped into departments corresponding to the various areas of instruction, with each department having a chairman. In addition, KAIS would have a number of laboratory centers in which activities would take place. While it would be possible to assign each such laboratory to an individual department, there are many circumstances where an individual laboratory is actually interdisciplinary in character and is used by several departments. In such a situation, consideration could well be given to designating each such laboratory as a "Center," with its own director, who would have a status within KAIS comparable with that of a department chairman. The advantage of this type of arrangement over a purely departmental organization is that it recognizes that in actual fact many activites in engineering and science involve association with more than a single discipline. The Computer Center is such an example.

Positions such as department chairman (and center director) carry with them considerable administrative responsibilities, and therefore do not represent honorary positions. The department chairmen (and also center directors) give the president and the vice presidents of KAIS a panel of individuals to whom significant responsibilities can be delegated, and thus provide the mechanism for developing a management team, and for training future educational leaders. At the same time, each department chairman and center director, and even the academic vice president, should be expected to participate in the teaching activities.

As the department and center level, more use should be made of faculty in connection with management problems of KAIS than is perhaps customary in many Korean educational institutions. The senior faculty of KAIS will consist of mature individuals who have already achieved considerable distinction. Their experience and creative ideas should be heard in connection with many of the matters affecting KAIS, particularly with respect to faculty qualifications, curricula, course content, formal requirements for degrees, criteria for admission of students, etc.

The Education Council described in Articles 28-33 of the Articles of KAIS (see Appendix A) provides a suitable mechanism for faculty participation in the management of KAIS. If skillfully utilized, the Education Council can make an important conribution to the effecive functioning of the institution.


Research, both basic and applied, should be treated as an integral part of KAIS's educational program. Through involvement in research, students can learn how to recognize a problem, how to obtain the answer to the problem when the answer is not in the textbook, how to evaluate an answer, and finally how to report the result to others. KAIS must therefore provide excellent facilities, good supporting services, and adequate funds for research acivities. Besides the important role of research in the training of graduate students, it must be remembered that the continued intellectual liveliness of the faculty will depend in large measure on its continued involvement in professional studies and research work. Most faculty members would therefore be expected to parrticipate in research projects personally.

At this point it it desirable to clarify the distinction between the research roles of KIST and KAIS. To the uninitiated, it might seem that there is duplication, but actually these institutions are complementary with respect to research roles. KIST's primary mission is to carry on work for clients (industrial firms and government agencies) that have specific problems, the solution of which requires research and development effort of high quality. KIST has available a full-time experienced professional staff to meet such needs, and can carry out an industrial research and development project in accordance with a time schedule desired by the client. In doing so it will customarily concentrate its efforts rather narrowly on the client's objective.

In contrast, KAIS research is "academic research," in which the end objective is typically defined only in general terms, and in which no effort is made to adjere to a rigid time schedule. Academic research is almost always a part-time activity, carried on by a combination of professors and students, both of whom have other obligations. To the student, research is an educational experience, while to the professor it is a mechanism both for advancing his understanding of phenomena and for assisting him in the training of students. In academic research the end objective is less definite than in industrial research, and if significant side phenomena are encountered, it is permissible and often desirable to explore these, rather than concentrating all effort on ths original objective. In other words, academic reserach has opportnistic features not present in industrial research. In addition, academic research that produces negative results need not be regarded as a disappointment, as would be the case in an industrial project; this is because such a research result will still have produced a trained man, and will have added to the professor's knowledge and understanding. Because of these characteristics, academic research can and should be somewhat more speculative in its approach than is permissible in research performed for a client with a problem requiring an immediate answer.

Although research is an essential ingredient for KAIS, it is to be kept in mind that the central purpose of KAIS is the production of graduate level applied scientists and engineers who will be able to make important contributions to the Korean economy and eventually upgrade Korean higher education in applied science and engineering. In this connection it is to be remembered that a large amount of science and technology already exists in the world and that more is being created every day. Most of this is available free to Korean scientists and engineers through open literature. Accordingly, creative innovation in the use of existing knowledge is an important to Korea as inventions and new discoveries that add to the store of knowledge.

KAIS could profitably undertake cooperative research projects with Korean research institutions and industries. Such coperative projects would normally be closely related to problems of importance to Korean industries, and would give students experience in how to go about solving problems of the type they might encounter in the future.

Although the Korean government is eager to invest in research and development, it must be recognized that up to now only modest amounts of research work have been carried out in Korea, and experience in managing research projects is only beginning to be obtained through KIST. A research grant system for academic institutions is not yet well established, and procedures for evaluation of research progress are lacking. Cost-benefit analyses and program control procedures are likewise missing. Thus KAIS has the opportunity to establish useful precedents for future Korean research and development in academic institutions, just as KIST is establishing models for the conduct of industrial research and development.

KAIS should actively seek research grants not only from the Korean government and private industries, but also from foreign agencies and foundations. The Survey Team thus recommends that KAIS establish an Office of Research Coordination with KAIS to help all faculty members in getting research grants and administering them.

Thesis and Dissertation Policies

It is recommended that the MS degree normally require the submission of a satisfactory thesis. The purpose would be to give students some experience with the creative process involving independent thinking and planning. The time devoted to thesis work should range from one-third to a maximum of one-half of a school year, distributed throughout the second year. Students who have had appropriate experience in industry should be permitted to waive the thesis requirement and substitute in its place additional courses.

The degree of Engineer might be awarded on the basis of courses alone, if this is to be a one-year degree. In the event that two years of study beyond the MS are required, then a thesis involving the equivalent of one-half of a school year would be appropriate. The ScD degree would, of course, require the traditional dissertation representing a substantial creative intellectual effort. The total time required to be devoted to the dissertation would normally be one-and-one-half to two years.

The scope of the theses and dissertations should be so controlled that the average student can complete the work expected of him in the allocated time. It is bad for morale and unfair to the student who is doing satisfactory work to be required to put in substantially more time than is represented by the normal schedule.

Phased Development of KAIS

It will be much easier to bring KAIS rapidly to a high state of intellectual and professional quality if the various stages are thoughtfully planned and if the growth of the institution is so phased as to avoid the deleterious impact of sudden growth and concomitant excessive burden of problems.

The initial step in establishing KAIS as an operating entity is the selection of a Board of Trustees, which in turn should immediately address itself to the task of seeking a president of KAIS. This presidential search should be very thorough and should be carried out with the aid of an ad hoc committee that includes appropriate representatives of industry, higher education and governmnet. The individuals from higher education and industry on this ad hoc committee would presumably also provide the basis of the Academic and Industrial Advisory councils indicated in Figl 3-1.

Once a president has been appointed, his first task will be to select a vice president for academic affairs, and to initiate recruitment of a few senior faculty members who would be expected to perform key leadership roles in the new institution. The president and vice president working with these individuals could then serve as an academic planning group that would concern itself with such matters as: (1) recruitment of additional faculty members; (2) policy decisions regarding the various MS fields; (3) desired course structure, including particularly core courses; (4) entrance procedures for students; (5) policy decisions regarding instruction and research laboratories; and so on.

In faculty recruiting the policy should be to search carefully and thoroughly in order to obtain the best qualified individuals. An appointment should never be offered until at least three or four individuals have been identified who deserve serious consideration for the position in question; i.e. there should always be alternative names under review. Further, it would be a mistake to fill all the positions, particularly the tenure positions, in a great hurry; this would almost certainly result in a faculty of lower quality thatn could be obtained by more deliberate and careful action. Any shortage of faculty to cover initial reaching needs could be taken care of by the judicious use of visiting faculty, adjunct faculty, and lecturers.

Concurrently with the start of academic planning, the new president of KAIS, working with the Board of Trustees, will need to appoint a vice president for development and a business manager. In development, the first task is to establish relations with industry. As discussed later, the initiative in this connection rests with KAIS, which should follow an aggressive policy.

An academic planning group and the business manager will need to work closely with the architect in the design of the KAIS buildings. In particular, the architect should not be allowed to plan the interior of the academic buildings without guidance from academic people who are going to work in the buildings.

Orders for laboratory equipment should not be placed until individuals who will personally use the equipment have been appointed and have had time to formulate their personal plans for instruction and research. As explained below, much money can be wasted by disregarding this procedure.

It will be desirable for KAIS to start with a small entering class of MS candidates, such as forty students, and to work up to the planned size over a period of approximately three years. Similarly, it is desirable that initial emphasis be placed on the development of the MS program and that for the first few years there be only a small number of doctoral candidates. The implementation of the degree of Engineer, and the development of programs for continuing education can be deferred or at least kept to a minimal activity, during the first several years until the MS program is thoroughly established and operating smoothly. It is not necessary that all MS degree programs be started concurrently; thus one or two of the five main degree programs may be deferred for a year or so while staff is being recruited and trained. A possible schedule of buildup of the MS and ScD programs is given in Table 3-1. The exact numbers shown should be regarded as illustrative of the general idea, rather than as specific recommendations.

Table 3-1: Suggested Schedule of Buildup of MS and ScD Programs.

(* Assumes no attrition, and excludes Engineer degree candidates and part-time MS degree students; also assumes all students complete work in prescribed time.)

New MS Entrants
(Full-time only)
New ScD Candidates Total Enrollment (Approx.)
MS + ScD
1st Year 40-50 a few - - -
2nd Year 65-75 10 120-140*
3rd Year 90-100 15 185-205*
4th Year 100 20 235-245*
7th Year 100+ 45 310*

Subquotas by Major Field

In addition to the quotas for the total numbers of new MS students to be admitted, subquotas should be set each year for each of the major fields in which degrees are awarded.

Once KAIS has achieved its goals as to operating level (i.e., by the third or fourth year in Table 3-1), no subquota in the MS program of an individual department should be less than 15 new students per year. The reasons for this are associated with the fact that if the number of students annually entering a particular curriculum is substantially smaller, say in the range 5-10, there is a loss of interaction between students, and it is not possible to justify a faculty of five or more in that department. At the same time, without a faculty of this minimum size it is not feasible to offer instruction of the highest quality that is simultaneously adequate in breadth and depth. The attitude should be that if a particular segment of Korean industry does not require at least 15 KAIS-type MS graduates per year, then that discipline does not have a sufficiently high priority to warrant a curriculum at KAIS.

Student Selection and Support

The selection of students for any respectable Korean school is an important public matter. The traditional Korean student selection method is based solely on the student's marks on entrance examinations; students' previous scholastic records, recommendations, or special aptitudes are ignored. The system is inflexible and very mechanical, and KAIS should not follow this method of student selection. Instead, the Survey Team recommends that KAIS adopt a plan in which the applicants, who must have a legitimate bachelor's degree, would take a severe "qualifying" examination that would reveal proficiency in English and in basic science and mathematics, and which would evaluate knowledge of the major field. This examination is to test whether the applicant can take courses successfully at KAIS. Proficiency in English is mandatory for a KAIS student, since much of the instruction will be given in English, and a majority of the educational materials will be in English. This examination would be used to select as "qualifiers" approximately twice as many students as the total entrance quota, according to the performance on the examination. The student selection committee would then interview each qualifier and evaluate his credentials, records, backgound, personal plans, and personal characteristics. Final selection would be done by matching the candidate's profile with the student body desired by KAIS to serve the needs of the Korean economy. It is strongly recommended that efforts be made to include among KAIS students a considerable numberof young engineers with practical experience.

KAIS should be a truly national institution. This implies that in selecting students, some consideration should be given to geographical and institutional distribution. In this connection, care should be taken to insure that the qualifying examination does not have a bias favoring those who have passed through the curricula of a particular undergraduate institution.

The above selection procedure mainly applies to the MS and the Engineer degree programs. In the admission of students to the doctoral program, emphasis should be primarily on the personal credentials and interests, rather than on formal examinations.

In the case of foreign students, the emphasis may be different from that for Korean stuents, except that they should qualify in the first examination.

The plan for KAIS calls for scholarship support for every student at KAIS. The support should, if possible, consist of tuition, fees, room and board, books, supplies and even personal expenses. This is in line with the current trend in developed nations, and the Survey Team considers that a generous program of student support is essential for the success of KAIS.

Besides financial support, students at KAIS also will receive special treatment with respect to customary compulsory military service (see Appendix A). The Survey Team understands the benefits through this provision, but strongly warns that this provision can be easily misued. It is important that KAIS not become either a conduit through which many of the best Korean students eventually leave the country, or a convenient nest for draft dodgers. Therefore the Survey Team recommends that KAIS students who have completed their ten-week basic military training should satisfy their remaining military service requirements after obtaining their degree by an appropriate period of effort in Korean industry or government such as implied by Section 2, Article 23, of the Presidential Enforcement Decree (Appendix A),

Academic Buildings

While it was not practical for the Survey Team to make a detailed study of the building requirements, some recommendations that will be helpful in planning the physical plant and budgeting for it can be made; these are based on experiences elsewhere.

In general, buildings for an institution such as KAIS should be functional and flexible. Interior partitions should be non-bearing so they can be readily moved to permit the many changes that will be necessary as KAIS grows, as its curricula change, and as professors succeed one another. A truly flexible building can be equipped for the first occupants at a relatively modest expense. Special built-in features, such as often requested by professors should be provided only when there is an immediate need, since they reduce flexibility while adding to expense. Corridors, stairways, washrooms, and similar other facilities should be planned for the actual use, which will resemble an industrial research laboratory more than an academic building occupied by large numbers of undergraduate students.

The utilities and service initially provided should be minimal. At the same time, there should be provision through duct space above corridors that will make it possible to bring in special service that may be required in the future, such as additional electric power, natural gas, nitrogen, oxygen, helium, water, etc.

Lecture rooms can be planned for classes of 20 to 60 and should vary in size and in facilities provided. A well designed room should require only 10 sq. ft. per student. The nearby auditorium of the Korea Institute for Science and Technology can be used when very large groups are to be accomodated.

A preliminary estimate given in the Supplement to this report indicates that an academic building having an area of approximately 150,000 sq. ft. gross will be needed to carry KAIS through the first four or five years. The long-range plan should, however, contemplate future construction that will triple the space through a series of coordinated structures.

Laboratory Equipment

Laboratory equipment will be a major item. In equipping a laboratory for a professor, or for general use, there is a temptation to develop a long "shopping list," and then to place orders for everything that might might be needed. However, there is never enough money to buy all of the equipment that it would be nice to have. As a consequence, equipment for instructional laboratories should not be purchased until specific experiments are mapped out, and research equipment should be acquired only for research that will be performed with certainty within the twelve months ahead. This means that expenditure of the scarce foreign exchange available for apparatus should be distributed over the initial 4-5 years of KAIS, rather than being spent largely before the first students arrive on the scene. By following this procedure, the foreign exchange will go much further toward meeting the real priority needs of KAIS. In this connection, it is to be kept in mind that equipment is valuable to KAIS only to the extent that it sees substantial use in important activities. Fine equipment that does not fit into current high priority needs, and whose principle use is to impress visitors to the laboratory, represent money wasted.

Particularly expensive items of equipment, such as mass spectrometers and electron microscopes, should not be purchased without first determining what equipment of this type is available in the Science Park or in the greater Seoul area. Joint use of such expensive items of equipment is indicated even when considerable inconvenience is involved, until the actual use of an existing instrument in hours per week represents full time utilization.

Computer facilities should be housed centrally in the Science Park and shared by the residents of the Park. By the use of time-sharing combined with remote terminals, computer facilities can be conveniently available to student for their class assignments and for independent study.


There should be a central library that serves the entire Science Park, with branches in each of the Science Park institutes. At KAIS, the branch would contain duplicate copies of the books regularly consulted in connection with class and laboratory work, and also bound volumes and current copies of the principal technical journals. Catalogs of all holdings should be available in each branch. Large economies can be made by elimination of duplication of seldom-used material, and by centralizing administration, purchasing and cataloging.